Quantifier--Much, Many, A lot of, A few, etc


Penggunaan MUCH, MANY, A LOT OF, PLENTY OF, A FEW, A LITTLE dan lainnya

Untuk menunjukkan jumlah suatu benda, kita menggunakan quantifiers seperti “much, many, a lot of, plenty of, some, all, any, enough, none of, more, most, a few, few, a little, little” yang dipakai di depan kata benda yang dapat dihitung maupun yang tidak dapat dihitung.

  • He has a lot of money.
  • There is still plenty of time.
  • I have some money for you.
  • A few villagers come from Malaysia.
  • Take a little water.
  • He wants some milk for his dog.
  • None of the students wore white shirts.
  • Sorry. I have little time to talk to you.


Berikut adalah quantifiers yang HANYA digunakan untuk kata benda yang dapat dihitung (countable nouns):
Few, a few, many, both, each, neither, several, fewer
Contoh dalam kalimat:
  • Few people came here.
  • I haven't got many friends here.
  • Both the supermarkets were crowded last night.
  • We need several people to help us here.
  • Two shops were open but neither of the shops sold sugar.


Much, a little, little and a bit of” dipakai di depan  uncountable nouns—misalnya time (waktu), money (uang), luck (keberuntungan) dan lain-lainnya

Misalnya:
Much time (banyak waktu), much fat (banyak lemak), little money (sedikit uang).
Many and few dipakai dengan kata benda dapat dihitung (countable nouns)—misalnya books, people, tables, cars, houses.

Contoh:
Many books (banyak buku), a few stores( Sedikit tokok), many cars (banyak mobil), a few houses (sedikit rumah), many roads (banyak jalan)
A lot of (lots of)” and” plenty of” dapat digunakan baik dengan kata benda dapat dihitung (countable noun) maupun yang tidak (uncountable noun).

Contoh:
A lot of rice=banyak nasi. Nasi (rice)  termasuk uncountable noun.
A lot of friends= banyak teman. Teman(friend) termasuk countable noun.
Lots of cars = banyak mobile. Mobil (car) termasuk countable noun.
Lots of water =banyak air. Air (water) termasuk uncountable noun.
Anda bisa menggunakan  a lot tanpa of setelah kata bend.

Contoh:
I eat a lot of rice.
I eat rice a lot.

Plenty berarti  “lebih dari cukup”walaupun kadang-kadang diterjemah sebagai "banyak"

Contoh:
I have plenty of time now. 
My friends have plenty of money.

Many dan much digunakan dalam kalimat  negative or interrogative.

Contoh:

Do you have much time tonight?
I don’t have many relatives here.
She doesn’t have much money in the bank.

Hati-hati dengan penggunaan  few and little. Ketika digunakan tanpa “a”, artinya menjadi  negative.

Contoh:

I have little money (Saya hampir tidak punya uang). Berbeda dengan "I have a little money.(Saya punya uang sedikit.)
I am sad here as I have few friends. (Hampir tidak punya teman)
She doesn’t want to go out as she has little money. (She won’t be able to buy anything).

Jika kata sandang "a" digunakan, maka kalimatnya menjadi positif

Contoh:

I have a little drink. I can give it to you  if you want.
She has a few friends in the city. On weekends, she sometimes visits one of them.

Quantifiers lainnya:

a heap of, heaps of, a load of, loads of, tons of, a couple of, hundreds of, thousands of

Latihan:
Pilihlah quantifiers yang sesuai. Ingat ada quantifiers yang hanya digunakan untuk uncountable noun dan ada yang untuk countable nouns saja.


  • She has ....................money. She cannot buy anything.
  • Don't worry. I've got .................time to be with you.
  • We need ............... water for our next biking trip.
  • Do you know .............people here?
  • ..........................people died in this accident. Only ...............people was badly injured.
  • ................ of the the cars was expensive.
  • How .............money do you need for your next trip?
  • I have ..............information about it. Sorry. I can't tell you.
Much of dan Many of: 
Penggunaan much of dan many of harus mengikuti beberapa syarat sebagai berikut:

Diikuti oleh: 

  • demonstrative adjectives (this, that, those, these);
  • possessive adjectives (my, your, his, her, their, our, its);
  • articles (kata sandang  tentu the);
  • pronouns (them, us, you).

Perhatikan contoh pemakaiannya dalam kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  • Many of my friends spent their year-end holidays in Bali. (Banyak dari teman-teman saya menghabiskan waktu liburan akhir tahun di Bali.)
  • Will many of you attend her wedding reception? (Apakah kebanyakan dari kalian akan menghadiri resepsi pernikahannya?)
  • Is much of your time spent on reading novels? (Apakah waktu Anda banyak dihabiskan untuk membaca novel?)
  • Many of the tourists we met on the streets said they would visit Borobudur. (Banyak dari turis yang kami temui di jalan bilang mereka akan mengunjungi Borobudur.)
  • How much of this kind of honey is consumed in your country? (Berapa banyak jenis madu ini digunakan di Negara Anda?)
  • Unfortunately, many of them were not invited to the party. (Sayang sekali, banyak dari mereka tidak diundang ke pesta itu.)
  • Many of these books can be bought  at the flea market. (Banyak dari buku-buku ini dapat dibeli di pasar loak.)

Contoh dalam Percakapan:

Yanto    : I don’t know many of your friends. Do many of them live here?
Apri        : No. Many of them live in Florida. They visited me last year. I thought you met them.
Yanto    : There were too many guests at the time. I didn’t know which of them your friends were.
Apri        : I noticed you only talked to your Indonesian friends. No wonder you didn’t know them.


Terjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris kalimat-kalimat berikut:

  • Banyak dari peselancar di pantai Tanjung Setia berasal dari Negara Australia.
  • Banyak dari kami tidak bisa berbahasa Indonesia.
  • Banyak dari teman kuliah saya masih belum menikah.
  • Apakah banyak dari  tamu-tamu kita telah mengunjungi Candi Borobudur?